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Do Water Softeners Remove Fluoride? Here’s What Really Works


The short answer is- No, water softeners do not remove fluoride. Since fluoride ions are negatively charged, they are not exchanged by the water softening process and remain in water.

This is because because water softeners exchange ions that are positively charged such as Magnesium and Calcium(common indicators of hard water) with negatively charged ions(usually Sodium). This exchange process removes the unwanted positive ions from the water into a separate brine solution that is discarded later.

The other type of water softener- the salt free type- is also not useful as it doesn’t actually remove any dissolved ions in water. It simply reacts with hard water minerals- Calcium and Magnesium, to ensure they don’t adhere to surfaces, and ensures scaling doesn’t happen.

I’m assuming you’re still looking for an answer as to how fluoride can be removed from your water. While it is one of the more difficult ‘contaminants’ to remove, here are the 3 ways to filter fluoride out

  1. Reverse Osmosis
  2. Ion Exchange
  3. Distillation

Before going into each of these filtration techniques in detail, it’s important to understand what the existing level of fluoride in our water is like usually, as well as what level of consumption is safe for us.

Understanding Regulation For Fluoride Levels In Water

In the US, Fluoride has been added to public water supply since the 1950’s when it was found that it helps prevent tooth decay. In other countries where fluoridation isn’t practised, such as where I live-India, it is due to naturally high levels of fluoride in water.

According to the Centre For Disease Control & Prevention’s(CDC) toxicology guide, excess fluoride can cause:

  • Dental fluorosis– a condition that causes staining on the enamel.
  • Higher risk of fractures in the elderly, due to increased mineral density
  • Skeletal fluorosis– brittle bones and decreased tensile strength

There also are many other potential risks of excess fluoride which have been found through limited studies- such as lowered IQ in children, hypothyroidism, and diabetes risks.

The guide also sets a daily minimum risk level(MRL) for fluoride – 0.05 mg/kg. If this minimum risk level is met every single day in a person’s drinking water for more than a year, then that person would potentially be at risk for fluoride poisoning.

So, let’s take an example here. For an average person who weighs 60 kg, the MRL will be 60*0.05= 3 mg/day.

Here’s the problem with that:

As per the 2015 revision by US Dept. of Health & Human Services, the optimal level of fluoride in public water is 0.7 mg/L. They reduced their earlier recommended range of 0.7-1.2 mg/L owing to the variety of additional sources through which we receive fluorine nowadays.

However, a closer look still finds their recommendation somewhat at odds with the CDC’s.

An average person drinks 3-4 L of water everyday. That comes to 2.1-2.8 mg fluoride ingested everyday. Taking the above example of a 60 kg person, the minimum risk level for him(3mg/day) is uncomfortably close!

And this is just from a single source of fluoride. According to Fluoride Action Network, a person is exposed to fluoride from multiple sources every day, few of which are:

  • Dental products like toothpaste- According to oralanswers, most toothpastes contain 1500 mg fluoride in every litre. A normal stripe of toothpaste, as they show in commercials is about 1.5 ml. Which comes to about 2.25 mg fluoride right there. Would be better to start using a pea sized drop of toothpaste(~0.3 mg fluoride) than a stripe, if you don’t already
  • Non stick pans
  • Processed drinks and foods
  • Mechanically deboned meat
  • Pesticide laden food

According to W.H.O:

“Virtually all foodstuffs contain at least traces of fluorine. All vegetation contains some fluoride, which is absorbed from soil and water. Tea in particular can contain high fluoride concentrations, and levels in dry tea are on average 100 mg/kg”

Adding up fluoride consumption from even a few of these sources, it isn’t tough to cross the minimum risk limit set by the CDC.

How you can remove fluoride from your water

#1 Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis is the most effective water purification technology commercially available. It removes all viruses, bacteria, cysts, protozoa(basically- all water borne contaminants) as well as dissolved impurities like chlorine, chloramine, and heavy metals like fluoride. I would suggest employing RO as an undersink filter for drinking water and not a whole house filter because it wastes ~60% of water during purification. Imagine the wastage if it filtered all water in the house!

RO units are great for ensuring no contaminants remain in water though. They are easily available on Amazon, or if you want a comprehensive guide on RO, you can read more about them here.

#2 Ion Exchange Water Filters

Water Filter Pitcher:

Not all water filter pitchers remove fluoride, however, this filter pitcher on Amazon was the one of the rare ones that do. It has been tested to remove upto 90% of fluoride in water, among other heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury, chromium, and copper.

As a bonus, it also removes chlorine, chloramines and VOC’s from water.

While these are tall claims, a little digging around proved them to be legitimate. My initial skepticism towards this product’s supposed 90% fluoride reduction rate was because the concentration of fluoride in the test sample wasn’t mentioned on it’s Amazon product page.

However, going through the product certifications on it’s website showed that it has passed EPA as well as W.H.O standards on fluoride removal from water. The most recent certification- for EPA method 300 consists of multilaboratory testing of the filter on water samples having fluoride concentration in the range 0.26-8.49 mg/L. The upper limit far surpasses the normal levels of fluoride in groundwater, and seeing as it removes still 89.36% fluoride in this particular test, I’m satisfied.

Last thing:

There is a bit of a maintenance aspect to this, as you’ll have to change the filter cartridges every few months(exact timeline depends on your water quality). I’d suggest you buy a cartridge along with the pitcher, because you never know how many months down the line you may need to change it. After that, once you have an idea, you can plan your replacement filter purchases accordingly.

PS: I loved the fact that they have a 30 day return policy as one as one that lets consumers send used filter cartridges back to the manufacturer for recycling. Read more about it here.

Countertop Gravity Water Filters:

In case you’re looking for a filter pitcher that carries more water, you can check out this product on Amazon, that has a 4.5 gallon or 17 L capacity. While it is definitely more expensive than the traditional water filter pitcher, it would make sense to buy it if you’re more than 2 people in the household, or don’t have the time to refill the pitcher a couple of times a day.

#3 Distillation:

Distillation essentially means boiling water and then collecting the water vapors in a separate container. By the end of this process, most of the dissolved salts, chemicals-which includes fluoride- would be left behind as they have a higher boiling point than water.

According to Fluoride Action Network, distillation will remove most, if not all of the fluoride in water.

Keep in mind though, that distillation is a long process. According to the product details of this popular countertop distiller on Amazon, it takes 5 hours to purify 1 gallon(~4 L) of water.

I’d rather get an Ion exchange filter or RO filter, if I were you.

Few Common Questions:

Do refrigerator filters remove fluoride from water?

No, they don’t. Refrigerator filters typically use Granular Activated Carbon(GAC) filters, which do not remove fluoride from water.

Can you remove fluoride from water by boiling it?

Boiling isn’t really effective as fluoride boils at a higher temperature than water. Distillation of water is more effective (see above)

How To Remove Heavy Metals From Water


Heavy metals are those elements that have a density at least 5 times greater than that of water. While some, such as Chromium, Selenium and Iron are required by the human body in trace amounts, others, such as Arsenic and Lead are extremely dangerous, and even a minimal level of exposure to them is unsafe.

In order to decide the best way to remove heavy metals from your water, it is important to know the different types of heavy metals commonly found in our water supplies, how to detect them, and what the safe consumption guidelines are. The last point about knowing water safety standards, according to me is the most crucial.

However, before I go forward, here’s a brief table of contents, in case you’re interested in skipping to a particular section.

Commonly Found Heavy Metals To Watch Out For:

Few of the dangerous heavy metals that have no biological use for humans are:

  • Cadmium
  • Arsenic
  • Lead
  • Antimony
  • Mercury
  • Lithium
  • Beryllium
  • Silver

Even heavy metals that are needed such as Chromium, Iron, Zinc, etc can cause adverse effects if their levels in the human body become excessive.

How do heavy metals get into water?

    1. Vehicular pollutionAccording to Nato Science For Peace and Security book , heavy metals like lead, cadmium and mercury are released into the air by vehicular emissions. These add to the pollutants in the air, which contaminate rainwater as it falls down and percolates into the ground.
    2. Acid Rain: Tying in with the point above, air pollution turns rainwater acidic as the pollutants mix into it. When this water comes into contact with the soil, it may release any trapped heavy metals which further contaminate this water
    3. Source Water contamination– In some areas, heavy metals are naturally present in groundwater. This news story in the US cited excessive lead levels were found in almost 2000 water systems across 50 US states
    4. Agricultural runoff: Pesticides sprayed on crops contains heavy metals. If the farm is situated up-slope from a water source, there is a high probability that excess pesticidal spray may have contaminated the water at some point or the other.
    5. Incorrect Pesticide Spraying Practices: Another common cause of contamination is due to incorrect spraying practices which contaminates water sources nearby
    6. Industrial Runoff: Waste from factories and industrial plants contains multiple heavy metals in high concentrations. If not correctly disposed, it can easily contaminate water bodies nearby
    7. Lead Plumbing: There are multiple sources of lead in our plumbing through which it can enter the water supply. Read this article for more on how to identify if you have lead plumbing

Health effects of Heavy Metals in Water:

Acute heavy metal poisoning, where you ingest a high dose of heavy metal(s) at once, can lead to serious health issues. However, it is easier to diagnose than chronic heavy metal toxicity. Chronic heavy metal toxicity refers to the scenario where someone consumes just a little bit of heavy metal(s) through a contaminated water source everyday.

The second case is tougher to diagnose for doctors because the symptoms are quite generic and the progression of side effects is quite slow. This is because heavy metals accumulate in the body over time and may not start causing adverse effects till a later date. According to hydroviv.com:

Symptoms of chronic heavy metal toxicity can include but are not limited to headaches, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and weakness.”

Existing Regulations on Heavy Metals:

According to the US Environmental protection Agency(USEPA) Regulations, here are the permissible limits in water for few of the common heavy metals:

  • Lead: 150 ppb(parts per billion)
  • Antimony: 6 ppb
  • Arsenic: 10 ppb
  • Mercury: 2 ppb
  • Barium: 2000 ppb
  • Beryllium: 4 ppb
  • Cadmium: 5 ppb
  • Chromium: 100 ppb
  • Fluoride: 4000 ppb
  • Selenium: 50 ppb

Drawback of EPA Regulations on Heavy Metals in Water:

According to me, it is best to completely filter out all heavy metals because heavy metals tend to accumulate in our bodies over time and continual exposure, even at small concentrations can lead to serious health problems later on.

How To Test For Heavy Metals At Home:

The biggest barrier to identifying heavy metals at home is that most of them have no particular odor or taste, nor do they impart any color to the water.

Secondly, they become dangerous at parts per billion levels(ppb) which can’t be picked up by TDS meters-calibrated to parts per million(ppm).

Having said that, there are a few things you can do to check for heavy metals at home:

Blood Tests:

According to Dr. Sarah Carnes, this method is unreliable because heavy metals remain in the bloodstream only for a few weeks until they either are excreted or stored in the body. At that point, even if one gets a blood test done and the blood test comes clear, heavy metal poisoning still can’t be ruled out, since they might’ve accumulated inside.

For acute cases though, where a clear source of ingestion of heavy metals is identified(such as kids chewing on lead car keys) and a rapid progression of symptoms comes in, blood tests are effective.

Hair Tests:

The thing with heavy meals is, once they’re inside the human body, they are usually excreted through hair, sweat, urine, stool, menses, etc. However, if the body isn’t able to excrete them(could be due to many other health reasons, such as a weakened immune system) they get stored inside our tissues, bones and organs.

This is why heavy metals are called bioaccumulators- they tend to accumulate in the body over time.

Similar to blood tests, hair tests are also unreliable in most cases because the results don’t give a conclusive answer. Here’s why:

If the results show low concentration of heavy metals, it can mean that either:

  • There aren’t a lot of heavy metals in the body
  • There are a high concentration of heavy metals, but the body isn’t excreting them properly

Similarly, if the results show a high concentration of heavy metals, it can mean that either:

  • The body is excreting them efficiently and very little heavy metals remain inside the body
  • That the body is excreting a lot of heavy metals but a high concentration of heavy metals still exist in the body

Also, washing hair makes this testing unreliable. US people should get theirs tested at Trace Elements

Urine Tests:

Has the same pitfalls as the hair tests, as there are really no conclusive answers. The best way to test that seemed to make logical sense to me was to get a normal or ‘unprovoked’ urine test as a baseline, and then get a ‘provoked’ urine test- which basically means ingesting a chelating or binding agent that flushes out all the heavy metals through the kidneys in the form of urine.

When the ‘unprovoked’ and ‘provoked’ test results are compared, an accurate assessment can be made by the doctors. This shouldn’t be attempted without a doctor’s advice, however, because it is quite dangerous for the kidneys.

Normal/Unprovoked urine tests for heavy metals can be easily ordered online, such as this one by Everly Well

Water Testing Kits:

As a first step before you go for the more expensive heavy metal tests, I’d say it’s better to buy a home water test kit. They are very easy to use- consisting of strips that can be dipped in water and turn a certain color to indicate which contaminant it contains.

There aren’t a lot of comprehensive home test kits that for heavy metals, though. I found this one on Amazon that tests for Lead, Copper and Iron.

My Recommendation For Testing Heavy Metals At Home:

Water suppliers in the US are required to publish an annual water quality report and provide the same to all consumers. You can look it up online for your particular supplier or even request them for it.

The best way to know your current water quality though, would be to get a water test done from a local lab. If you’ve been experiencing some of the heavy metal associated symptoms listed above, it might be a good idea to invest in a lab test.

As a preliminary step, you could get an at-home test kit for heavy metals, and then if the results seem alarming, you could go for a lab test.

As for the hair, urine and blood test options- they may give inconclusive results, so take them only as a preliminary test. Best to take the doctor’s advice when it comes to interpreting the results.

How To Remove Heavy Metals From Drinking Water:

RO Water Filters:

There are many water filtration technologies that you could go for, but if you’re really concerned about the heavy metal concentration in your water, I’d suggest going for a RO water filter, such as this one on Amazon. While they waste a lot of water, they are the most effective water filtration technology in the market, as they virtually remove all contaminants in water.

You can read more about RO purifiers in this comparison post I wrote about the 3 main water filter technologies today – RO Vs UV Vs UF

Whole house heavy metal water filters:

If you’re thinking long term and have correctly identified heavy metal contamination in your water, getting a whole house filter might make sense, especially because of how expensive they are(usually in the range of $600-$1000+). A lot of them are designed to remove the common heavy metals, chlorine, chloramines etc from water, as well as last a long time- such as this one on Amazon, that is supposed to last 10 years!

If you want to know the exact specifications, it’s best to check out the manufacturer’s website or speak to their representatives on the phone.

Conclusion:

Removing heavy metals from water can be a costly process. Keep in mind that heavy metals are dangerous whether they’re present in your drinking water or even the water you shower and wash your hands in.

If you can afford it, getting a whole house water filter makes sense, and solves all problems in one go.However, if you cannot, here’s what I recommend:

  • Get a RO water purifier for drinking purposes
  • Get a KDF shower and tap filter, such as this one on Amazon– removes upto 98% of water soluble heavy metals, among other common contaminants.
  • Use filtered water for washing clothes

Hope you enjoyed the article, and if you found this helpful, do share it with a friend who you think might need it. Or at least tell them what you learned! 

How To Drink Water Correctly:My Habits Since The Last Decade


I was a fat kid in my early teens. Around 13-14 years old, I decided to do something about it and started practising Yoga. Within 8-9 months- I’d shed almost 15 kilos following just these principles.

Here’s what I did:

  1. Daily routine of a yogic breathing exercise called pranayaam- 30 mins
  2. Ate clean and healthy- avoided certain foods like red meat, stocked up on boiled veggies, the works
  3. Started drinking more water and at the right times

#3 is what I’m here to expand on today. Drinking enough water and in the correct manner was imperative for me to lose weight.

And while I picked up a majority of these habits almost 10 years ago, a few of these I just started implementing while researching for this article.

Here’s everything you need to know about how to drink water correctly:

Sipping Vs Gulping Water- Does It Matter How Fast You Drink?

Absolutely it does.

You see, this is one of the bad habits I picked up over the years. Everytime I drank water, I gulped down almost half a bottle.

Initially, it was a way to force myself to drink more water because I knew I’d forget to drink water during the day- so I got into the habit of drinking a litre of water within a span of minutes.

Then I could go back to whatever I was doing and have my next drink several hours later, when I’d down another litre. Repeat this once more and I’d reach my quota for the day.

Here’s the problem with that- it’s useless.

Our kidneys are responsible for processing the waste material from our blood and forming urine, among other things. However, they cannot process more than a certain amount of water every day, and by gulping water down every now and then, we risk stressing out our kidneys.

So how much water should you drink per hour?

No more than 0.8- 1L. That is the general amount of water that a pair of healthy kidneys can process every hour.

If we drink more that, we put ourselves at risk for hyponatremia- a life threatening condition where the sodium levels in body plummet because of increased water content in the body.

Seriously, even I was shocked to find that people have died from over-hydration.

And yes, while you’d have to drink a lot of water to be even close to that stage, the point here is that when you drink a lot of water in a short period of time, you put undue stress on your kidneys.

Secondly, all that effort put into hydration goes to waste because the body cannot absorb so much water in so little time. It just passes the water out without absorbing most of it. A good indicator of this is if your urine is without color – crystal clear.

So bottom line- sip water slowly over time and don’t gulp it down.

How To Get Into The Habit Of Sipping Water

I’d never thought peeing a clear liquid was anything but normal for the longest time. I’ve been struggling with breaking an old habit of gulping water down all at once from the bottle. These days, even though I’ve been consciously trying to drink relatively small amounts at a time and not gulping water down, my urine still turns out to be a clear liquid.

So Frustrating.

Here’s what I’ve started to do now:

I keep a small paper cup on my desk at all times and pour water into it from my bottle. It’s about 200 mL which is perfect to drink at one time. Repeat this every 30 mins or so.

If you’re in an office environment all day, just grab a paper cup from the water cooler. You could also get a sipper bottle that allows you to sip small amounts.

How Often Should You Drink Water Throughout The Day and How Much?

The short answer is- it depends.

Here’s the long answer. All my research pointed towards these 5 metrics to help you decide.

  1. Weight
  2. Gender
  3. Activity level
  4. Climate
  5. Other health factors- such as pregnancy or if you’re breastfeeding these days

And while there are no scientific ways I could find to calculate the exact water intake you should have, here’s the bottom line, according to Institute of Medicine, an American Non Profit:

For people older than 19 years, recommended daily water intake for men is 3.7 L and for women- 2.7 L .

This includes indirect water consumption through meals as well- such as soups, milk, etc.

I tend to drink about 4 L a day, because I live in India(hot most of the year!) and I work out 4 times a week for 45 mins. So I need to rehydrate a tad more.

As for your weight, some articles online recommend drinking 2/3rds of your pound weight in oz. (If you weight 180 pounds, drink 120 oz. daily)

Others recommend drinking half your pound weight in oz.

Like I said, not an exact science. These recommendations are all just pointers for you, so treat them as broad guidelines to follow, rather than exact metrics. You now know the range of water intake that is healthy, try to be in that range and don’t worry too much about the exact numbers.

As for how often you should drink during the day- that’s up to you. As long as you don’t drink more than 0.8-1 L every hour, it’s up to you to decide how you want to break up your daily quota throughout the day.(I’ll share my water drinking routine in a bit, few paragraphs down the line)

Cold Water Vs Room Temperature- What’s The Best Temperature To Drink Water?

Short answer?

Room Temperature or warm water.

The reasons, are pretty basic.

Say, it’s a sunny, hot day and you drink a glass of cold water before lunch. Now, your body has to expend energy towards bringing the water to the core body temperature.

How is that a problem?

  • It tends to constrict blood vessels and coagulate(or harden) any fats we may have consumed. These hardened fats then may form deposits in our body
  • Due to blood vessels constricting, proper blood circulation to all organs gets hindered. If we drink cold water around meal times, it can mess with digestion.

‘Ayurveda’, an ancient Indian medicinal practice, tells us exactly the same things.

Ice cold water freezes the enzymes and fluids in your gut so your body can’t properly digest food, which creates toxic buildup or ama [aa-ma]. In addition, the blood vessels constrict so the toxic buildup gets stuck inside you instead of draining through your lymph (cleansing) system”

Tina Shah, Ayurveda Practitioner

Pre-industrialization, everywhere you went in India, you’d see people enjoying cool glasses of water out of earthen pots(matkas). These pots kept water cool throughout the day, around room temperature and even today, some people still prefer to do this than drink cold, refrigerated water.

Warm or hot water has it’s benefits as well:

  • Helps cleanse our body of toxins. Warm water allows toxic built up to flow out of our lymph system
  • Helps increase blood circulation and boosts metabolism because it raises the body temperature

Bottom line: Avoid cold water as much as you can(I know! I struggle with this too), and drink room temperature-lukewarm water mostly. Notice that I don’t recommend drinking hot water all the time as well, because it can tend to overheat our bodies.

Another important thing.

When should you not drink warm water?

After exercising. Your body temperature is already raised, so you should drink room temperature water to bring it back to normal.

Will You Burn Calories From Drinking Cold Water?

Yes, you will- because the body has to expend energy, as I talked about above. But the calorie burn is so minimal that it’s not even worth thinking of.

If you drink 8 glasses of cold water a day, you’ll burn a grand total of:

64 calories.

That’s it.

Cold water does have 1 benefit that I found online. That is, it gets absorbed by our intestines quicker. So we rehydrate quicker than we would by drinking normal water.

I still prefer room temperature water, because in the normal day to day, you usually don’t need that quick rehydration when you have your bottle of water next to you at all times.

Suggested Routine For Drinking Water

Here’s how I drink about 4 Litres of water everyday:

  • Wake up and drink 800 mL room temperature water (Or if I feel like it, somedays I’ll take two cups of warm water mixed with half a lemon and 1 teaspoon honey)
  • 1 L of water to be sipped over the next few hours(once I reach office) before lunch
  • Post lunch, 1 L of water to be sipped before I leave for the day(round 5.30 pm)
  • Once home, I may drink another cup or two of water(~400-500 mL)
  • I also drink milk twice a day and have yoghurt which covers up the rest of my daily quota

The only time of day I ingest a lot of water, about 800 mL at once, is when I wake up, as it helps flush out toxins and clear the stomach quickly.

If you find it hard to drink that much water, drink as much as you’re comfortable with. Have a cup or two of warm water with some lemon and honey. I find that to be equally effective.

Keep in mind that I drink slightly more than most because of the climate here and keeping my activity levels in mind. I didn’t lay my routine out for you to copy, rather modify and use according to your needs.

As long as you’re drinking water within the recommended range I cited above, you’ll be good to go.

But I Don’t Like The Taste! How To Make Tap Water Taste Better

Two common solutions:

Water Filter Pitcher:

In India, you don’t get tap water that’s pure enough to drink, so everyone has a water purifier at home. The advantage of that is that water tastes great as chlorine and other chemical additives are filtered out.

In a lot of countries though, people drink straight from the tap. I noticed this first when I travelled to the US. However, I also noticed that the water had a slightly odd taste because of the chlorine. While it was just noticeable for me, some people just can’t stand that taste.

If you’re one of those people, the first thing you might want to do is get a pitcher filter. I found a couple of really great ones online that are handy and can remove chlorine as well as other contaminants. You can check them out at Amazon.

Fruit Infusion:

But, even then, if you just don’t like the taste of plain old water- a water filter pitcher won’t be enough. If you’re one of those who can’t drink it because “it tastes like nothing!”, here’s what you can do:

Infuse some fruits into your water. You could add a dash of lemon to your water and make some lemonade or slice up some apples, peaches, pears – really, any sort of fruit you like- tie them up in a muslin cloth and dip them into a jar of water

After a few hours, you can remove the fruit and enjoy your tasty, fruit infused water.

Keep in mind though, that harder fruits like apples or pears take longer to release their juices. However, there are a lot of great recipes online for infusing fruit that you can follow.

And if this process sounds cumbersome, just get a fruit infuser bottle. It’s a neat little product that allows you to place your chopped fruit into a small container inside the bottle that keeps the fruit in place and allows for the juices to get infused at the same time. Check it out on Amazon

How To Increase Water Absorption – Few Tips To Hack Your Hydration

Our body needs minerals to aid the process of hydration. This is why people are advised to drink Gatorade or coconut water after a workout, because they provide water as well as restore the mineral balance in our systems – which rehydrates the body quicker than if they drank plain water.

In the normal day to day, this principle can be used just as well. A few things you can do to absorb water more are:

  • Add a squeeze of lemon to your water
  • Add a bit of grated ginger to your water
  • Add a tbsp of sea salt to your water

All of the above contain elements that bind with water molecules and aid the rehydration process.

Will You Have To Pee All The Time?

There’s no clear recommendation on how much water a person should drink in a day. Which is why there also is no guideline on how many times a person should pee daily.

From my experience- if you’ve just started drinking more water, you will have to make more frequent trips to the toilet. Don’t get scared though, because that’s the normal amount of times you should have to go. Unless you have to go every hour or so- that might mean you have an overactive bladder and you should get that checked out.

Conclusion:

Summing up, here’s the healthiest way to drink water, according to me:

  1. Sip, don’t gulp down water
  2. Drink 2-3 L everyday(ladies) and 3-4 L daily(men)
  3. Get a chlorine water filter if the chlorine taste stops your from drinking more water
  4. Get a fruit infuser bottle if you dislike the taste of plain water
  5. You can hydrate yourself better by adding some binding elements like sea salt to your water

Hope you enjoyed the article, and learnt something. Stay fresh and drink plenty my friends!

Until next time, please excuse me – I’ve sipped over a litre from my bottle in the last 5 hours while writing this. I really need to go now!

How To Reduce TDS In Water At Home


The best way to reduce TDS in water at home is by using a RO filter. You could also use a water distiller, but that’s an inconvenient option for most. Lastly, In case you’re just interested in softening hard water and not actually reducing TDS- you could buy a water softener as well. 

But first:

What Is TDS?

TDS or Total Dissolved Salts is a metric generally used to describe the hardness level of water. It basically tells us how many dissolved ions are present in our water.

Generally, these dissolved ions are of calcium and magnesium, as they are most common in hard water.

How common exactly?

Let’s just say that whenever someone is talking about their water being hard, there’s a very high chance it’s because of excess calcium and magnesium(and sometimes iron) in their water.

Apart from these commonly found ions, others that can be present in your water are the likes of nitrates, arsenic, lead, mercury, etc- which are more concerning and dangerous at much lower concentrations that calcium and magnesium.

These ions combine with other, oppositely charged ions(usually carbonates or sulfates) to form salts. All these salts together, make up the total dissolved salt levels in water. If their concentration is high enough, water is called hard.

What is ppm? Is There any difference between TDS and ppm?

Ppm stands for parts per million. To get an idea- imagine a 1000L tank, like the ones typically placed on building rooftops sometimes. Dropping one small ink drop in that tank(roughly 1 mL) will be 1 ppm or 1 part in a million.

TDS is usually measured in mg/L which stands for milligrams per Litre or 1 gram per million litres. So, saying that a particular water sample has a TDS of 1 mg/L is essentially the same as saying it has a TDS of 1 ppm.

To conclusively answer the above question- ppm and mg/L are both measures for assessing the TDS in water- and they are one and the same thing.

Are There Any Side Effects From Drinking High TDS Water?

Before I answer, a clarification- from this point onwards, ‘High TDS’ is assumed to be due to excess amounts of magnesium, calcium(and in some cases, iron) minerals in water, which, as I said are the most common contributors to hard water.

Generally if your water contains any other dissolved impurities- such as heavy metals like Chromium, Arsenic, Lead, etc- they will very rarely be in concentrations high enough to be picked up by TDS meters.

A related question to the one above also is- Are there any side effects from drinking hard water?

The answer to both of the questions is no, there are none that we know of yet. Little research has been done on the topic.

One of the few things that we know is, if the water is hard enough, drinking water can supplement some dietary requirements for minerals in our bodies. This 2013 research, one of the few that have been conducted on this topic, says the same.

So, yes- you’re probably safe drinking hard or High TDS water.

Any Side Effects From Drinking Low TDS Water?

According to a Water Quality Association(WQA) Report, anecdotal field experience tells us that there are no adverse effects from drinking low TDS water.

For instance, the US Navy provides distilled water(practically contains no TDS) for their crews to consume at sea. Even NASA provides water having TDS of about 0.05 mg/L for it’s astronauts aboard the space station.

Another common question a lot of people have is – Does low TDS water leach minerals from our bodies?

The answer to that is a resounding NO. While a shocking number of articles online cite this as a disadvantage of drinking low TDS water, it simply isn’t true. If it were, there would’ve long been a recommendation on this topic by WHO.

Scientifically speaking as well, our body’s regulatory mechanisms ensure that mineral ion concentrations are well maintained, even if we drink low TDS water regularly. To read more about this regulatory process called homeostasis, you can refer to this WQA report.

What Should Be The TDS Level of Drinking Water?

According to the WHO Recommendation on drinking water standards, here’s how they classify water quality according to TDS levels:

  • TDS < 300 mg/L: Excellent
  • 300 mg/L<TDS< 600 mg/L: Good
  • 600 mg/L<TDS< 900 mg/L: Fair
  • 900 mg/L <TDS< 1200 mg/L: Poor
  • TDS> 1200 mg/L: Unacceptable

The Bureau of Indian Standards(BIS) specifies two conditions for acceptable TDS levels:

  • Normal circumstances: TDS< 500 mg/L is acceptable
  • Emergency circumstances where no other water source is present:TDS<2000 mg/L is acceptable

Generally though, if water has TDS greater than 500 mg/L , it is classified as hard water and you probably shouldn’t be drinking water harder than that. That’s not to say that you should drink water with a very low TDS, say 30, because you do need a minimum level of minerals to be present in the water to make it fit for consumption- otherwise it just becomes unhealthy. Having said that, no public health organization around the world has specified a minimum limit for TDS. 

Now, I know all this can be a bit confusing, so here’s the general rule of thumb I follow:

Keep the TDS levels of your drinking water in the range of 100-500 mg/L. As long as you’re in this range, you’ll be fine. Personally though, I find that water with a TDS>150-175 doesn’t taste that great to me, it tastes kind of heavy. It all depends on your taste, though. Some people prefer to drink much harder water.

How to Reduce TDS in Water At Home?

#1 Reverse Osmosis(RO) filter:

RO water purifiers are the only commercially available option for lowering TDS in water and making it fit for consumption. The clear advantages of RO purifiers are that they remove all viruses, bacteria, cysts and protozoa(the entire range of water-borne contaminants basically) as well as dissolved impurities such as salts, heavy metals, chlorine and chloramine, etc.

However, they waste quite a bit of water in the process. For every Litre of pure water, they waste about 1.5 L. Here’s my recommendation:

If you’re okay with the current taste of your hard water, and it doesn’t contain harmful contaminants like heavy metals- don’t buy a RO purifier.

To make this call though, you need to know about the contaminants in your water. Residents in US can call their water supplier and simply find out. American water suppliers are also required to release an annual water quality report.

You can also get an inexpensive home test kit, such as this one on Amazon for testing for various common water contaminants. You can read more about RO water purifiers over here: RO Vs UV Vs UF: How To Choose a Water Purifier

#2 Boiling Water

I mentioned earlier in the article that Calcium and Magnesium ions make water hard by combining with carbonates and sulfates to form salts. Not all hard water minerals are the same though- some are temporary and can be removed by boiling water, while others are permanent and cannot be boiled out.

So, what exactly is the difference between temporary and permanent hardness of water?

Temporary hardness is due to formation of carbonate salts in water such as Calicum/ Magnesium Carbonates. This usually happens in areas where the groundwater has passed through limestone.

Permanent hardness refers to the formation of calcium and magnesium sulfates in water. These can only be removed through a RO purifier at home.

A lot of people falsely believe that boiling reduces total water hardness- i.e: permanent and temporary hardness taken together. This is because TDS testers only indicate the overall TDS concentration in water. They do not test the type of minerals dissolved in water, which leads to this misconception.

#3 Water Softener:

All right, I know that water softeners don’t reduce TDS. However, they do make hard water soft, so I’m adding this recommendation here because a lot of people often confuse TDS and water hardness. I know a lot of you are just looking for ways to make your water soft for home usage.

Acc to popular mechanics, there are two types of water softeners:

  • Salt Based Water Softeners: The first type works via ion exchange technology – by replacing Magnesium and Chlorine ions in water with Sodium.
  • Salt Free Water Softeners: There also exist salt free water softeners. Generally not as useful as salt based softeners, these these just work to prevent scaling or accumulation of hard water salts in pipes, tiles or other surfaces at home where hard water comes into contact.

Water softeners are great for preventing mineral build-up in your plumbing, on your bathroom tiles, shower heads, etc. Your skin and hair will feel better(hard water is very drying) and your clothes will look brighter after washing them. You can also drink softened water, provided you’re not specifically on a low sodium diet.

Keep in mind though- water softeners are usually whole house solutions and expensive, at that. If you are thinking of getting one, I’d recommend a salt based water softener, like this one on Amazon.

How To Measure The TDS In Water At Home?

Just measuring TDS isn’t going to tell you about your water quality. No TDS meter can tell what the salt composition actually is.

Also, if your water contains nitrates, arsenic, lead, etc, they become dangerous at a ppb(Parts Per Billion) level. Well, TDS meters are calibrated at ppm(Parts Per Million) and aren’t sensitive enough to detect these harmful dissolved salts. So, if you ask me whether TDS is a good measure for water quality? My answer would be- no, not in most cases.

Here’s what I recommend:

Get a complete water quality testing kit, such as this one on Amazon. This will help determine your water quality and find out whether there are any other dissolved hard water salts apart from the usual(Magnesium and Calcium), as well as other contaminants.

After that, if you decide to reduce TDS in your water by one of the above methods, you can choose to buy a TDS meter to monitor your filtered water levels periodically. They’re available on Amazon and are quite inexpensive.

Conclusion:

It’s important to know what exactly is the composition of the Total Dissolved Salts(TDS) in your water before taking the next step. My advice- if you don’t mind the taste of your water, you don’t need to reduce TDS. Like I said- as long as your water doesn’t contain heavy metals or excess chlorine and chloramines, there will be no side effects from drinking water that has a high TDS or even low TDS water, for that matter.

What matters is- what tastes the best to you? Decide according to that.

Can You Use Tap Water To Make Coffee At Home?


So many of us prefer to get our coffee fix at home, and rightly so. Not everyone can afford Starbucks everyday. But the most frustrating thing with making coffee at home is that it never tastes as good as Starbucks.

The key differentiator between your coffee at home and the one you buy is just 1 thing- plain old water. So yes, you can easily use tap water to make a GREAT cup of coffee at home, as long you keep in mind certain things about your water itself.

Firstly, water makes up about 96% of a cup of coffee and is the most important ingredient. It is of utmost importance that your water have just the right composition of minerals, otherwise you’ll end up with something that tastes like coffee, but not quite as good as you want it to be.

The thing about Starbucks and other coffee chains is that they maintain the same standard tastes across the country because they use professional filtration techniques to ensure that all outlets use the same type of water. Which in turn means they can use they same type of beans and so, they have a scalable business.

So how can you ensure that you get a great cup of coffee at home?

By looking at your tap water and checking what it’s composition is like. In this article, I’ve laid out, step by step, everything you need to know about having the best water for making coffee.

A word of warning though: You will still have to do a bit of experimentation to figure out the best tasting coffee for you. Use this article to arm yourself with the knowledge you’ll need to experiment. Once you’ve figured it out, I’m confident you’ll be able to make great tasting coffee every single day at home.

What is the best water for your coffee machine?

One of the biggest Non-profit trade organizations in the coffee industry, the Specialty Coffee Association of America(SCAA) laid out a few guidelines in 2013 on the best water quality for coffee brewing. They are a bit technical, so bear with me- I’ll break them down, one by one.

According to SCAA guidelines, the best water for coffee has:

  1. No odors
  2. Clear color
  3. No chlorine content
  4. Total Dissolved Salts(TDS) in the range of 75-250 mg/L. Optimum- 150 mg/L
  5. Calcium Hardness in the range of 17 mg/L to 85 mg/L
  6. pH should be between 6.5 and 7.5
  7. Total alkalinity near 40 mg/L
  8. Sodium levels near 10 mg/L

Here’s the break-down of the guidelines:

Odor, Water Clarity and Chlorine:

It’s pretty self explanatory why water shouldn’t contain odors and color. They are two big indicators that water is impure. However, in a lot of places, such as the US and Europe, people drink chlorinated water straight from the tap. While chlorine is necessary for purifying water, it also imparts a distinct taste and odor to water that tends to spoil the taste of coffee.

Also, according to watertechonline, chlorine, being an oxidative agent, tends to oxidize the oils and aromatics in coffee beans, imparting an earthy or moldy tone to the coffee. I recommend buying a simple water pitcher filter containing activated carbon for removing chlorine, such as this one on Amazon.

Total Dissolved Salts(TDS)

Measuring Total Dissolved Salts(TDS) is a way to know the concentration of minerals in your water. It is important to know 2 things regarding TDS:

  1. What is the concentration of the dissolved salts in your water?
  2. What is the composition of these salts?

Importance of Knowing The TDS Concentration:

The flavor in coffee beans doesn’t just infuse into water on it’s own – it needs the right ingredients. These ‘right’ ingredients are minerals. You see, minerals are needed, in the right quantities, to extract the coffee flavor.

And you need the right type of minerals too. For instance, according to Baristainstitute.com Magnesium is slightly better at extracting the coffee flavor than Calcium. But that’s more advanced stuff than you should worry about.

For now, just keep it in mind that your water should have the TDS concentration in the range 75-250 mg/L, with an optimum mineral concentration at around 150 mg/L. You can get a TDS meter, such as this one on Amazon for this purpose.

Importance of Knowing the TDS Composition:

Keep in mind that the SCAA guidelines do not specify what should be the composition of the Total Dissolved salts in water. Generally though, commonly found minerals in water are Calcium, Iron, Manganese and Magnesium. Some, such as lead or nitrates, can be downright dangerous, even at very small concentrations.(You can read more about this topic here)

If you’re unsure about the composition of the dissolved salts in your water, I recommend getting a home water testing kit, such as this one on Amazon.

If your water is in the right TDS concentration range, that’s great. If it isn’t or if you find that it contains some dangerous contaminants such as lead, nitrates or mercury, I recommend investing in a RO filter for your home. It’s the only commercially available method to reduce TDS of water at home. Apart from ensuring that you get the best water for your coffee, getting an RO filter has another advantage:

It’ll increase the life of your coffee machine. If your water is hard- i.e: contains an excess of calcium and magnesium salts- it’ll leave scaly white deposits which clogs the coffee machine from the inside.

They are easily available on Amazon as well. If you’d like to know more about this topic you can read this article I wrote: How to decrease TDS in water at home?

Why I Wouldn’t Worry About The Rest of The SCAA Guidelines:

The rest of the guidelines (#5 till #8) talk about sodium and calcium concentrations, alkalinity and pH. These are all things that are mostly controlled by the TDS levels(don’t forget that sodium and calcium are dissolved salts as well) and will take care of themselves, once the TDS levels are brought into the right range.

The crux of the SCAA recommendations, therefore is:

  1.     Get your TDS in the correct range, as specified
  2.     Ensure no odors, that water is clear ad contains no chlorine.

As a home brewer, I believe doing just these two things will put you miles ahead of the average person. The rest of the recommendations are nice to haves. If you’re still interested, here’s a brief on how they affect the taste of your coffee.

How pH of water affects coffee taste:

  •       pH is a metric for knowing how acidic or basic a particular material is. It works on a scale of 0-14, where 0 is the most acidic, 7 is neutral and 14 is the most basic(or alkaline).
  •       SCAA recommends that your water be in the neutral range so as to not tilt the balance of flavor to either the acidic end(vinegary) or alkaline end(flat, earthy).

How Sodium affects taste of coffee:

Sodium content is usually a little high in homes where a water softener is used. If in excess, it tends to impart a salty taste to water, and is dangerous for people who are on a low sodium diet.

How Calcium affects the taste of coffee:

Calcium and Magnesium are two minerals usually found in most water supplies. They give water a pleasant taste, and are responsible for extracting the flavor from coffee beans. In excess however, calcium will just give a dry, moldy flavor to the brew.

How Alkalinity affects the taste of coffee:

Alkalinity is usually dependent on the concentration of carbonated and bicarbonates in water, which are negatively charged and hence, are basic. They counteract the weakly acidic coffee beans. In the right composition, they ensure the taste isn’t too strong or vinegary in taste. If in excess, they impart a flat taste to the coffee.

They are usually present in water in the form of calcium and/or magnesium carbonate salts, which is also known as temporary hardness in water.

Final Tip On Using Your Tap Water For Brewing Coffee

I found a really practical suggestion online regarding this.

After you’ve figured out the TDS of your water and found out how hard it is, contact a local coffee brewery-they usually know the type of coffee beans that would be best suited as they test their brews in local waters too. If you’re unable to do this, the general rule of thumb is: 

If your water is hard, use a subtly roasted batch of coffee beans. If the TDS levels in your water are low, use a strong roasted batch because the extraction capability of the water would be that much lesser.

Conclusion

Anyone can brew a great cup of coffee at home. You don’t need to buy bottled water for your coffee machines at home like some people do. That’s just not sustainable. Just use your tap water.

You may need to filter it for chlorine and reduce it’s TDS with an RO filter, but these are long term investments- not just for your coffee, but for your health as well. `

7 Proven Chloramine vs Chlorine Water Treatment Methods


It's mind boggling how many people don't know what kind of chemicals their bathing water contains. 

Mostly, everyone assumes that the public water supply is safe. If not, then wouldn't other people also be falling sick?

To an extent, that is true. But here's the secret that your city's water supply dept. won't talk about:

The chemical they use to purify water for public consumption- chlorine-may be killing you in the long term.

I'll expand more on that in just a minute. 

First, here's why you should take the effects of chlorine water seriously and how many people are at risk of actually being affected.

What's Chlorine Doing In My Tap Water?

Chlorine has been heavily used to purify water for a long time now, and it's been immensely helpful towards purifying our urban water supply as well as preventing public outbreaks of water borne diseases.

The simple fact is, that without chlorine, it would be very tough and expensive to achieve the same level of water sanitation standards across the world.

Given how widely it is used, it simply is unrealistic to assume that your area's water supply doesn't contain chlorine. If it doesn't, you would be a part of a small minority- like Netherlands, for instance- that has managed to centralize it's water supply and make the purification process chemical free.

In most other countries though, that is simply not logistically possible. Which means that there is a very good chance that your water supply contains chlorine in more than healthy amounts.

What Are Chloramines?

Off late, chloramination has become the purification method of choice instead of chlorination. Chloramine is the compound formed by chlorine + ammonia. The reason for this is that chloramine stays stable in water for longer- leading to better purification.

According to this list of 33 US states by dudegrows.com, 107 locations out of the total 184 get chlorinated water(~58%), while 77 get chloraminated water(~42%). 

For more concrete data, you could check your water suppliers annual Consumer Confidence Report(CCR) , or you could also get a self testing kit to check for total chlorine(chlorine+its byproducts from chemical reactions, like chloramines), such as this one on Amazon.

What Are The Side Effects Of Too Much Chlorine and Chloramine?

  1. Hair Thinning
  2. Dry Skin, rashes(especially those with eczema, psoriasis, etc)and eye irritation
  3. Difficulty in breathing(especially for those already suffering from respiratory problems-such as asthma)
  4. Formation of THM's (Trihalomethanes) and THA's(Trihaloamines) that have been linked to cancer
  5. Destroys healthy gut bacteria

Is it safe to shower in chlorinated/Chloraminated water?

No, it's not. Rather- it's more dangerous than drinking chlorinated water.

Here's why:

When we shower in chlorinated water, the chlorine content gets absorbed by our skin - through a process called dermal absorption. It occurs as quickly as the time it takes you to wash your hands with soap!(Which is a good reason why you shouldn't even wash your hands in chlorinated water)

According to multiple studies on the matter, such as this one- total chlorine is way more harmful when absorbed or inhaled than when it's ingested. 

Once the total chlorine enters our systems- here's all that can happen:

1. Hair Thinning and Fading

Chlorine/chloramine, once absorbed through the skin and scalp, sucks away moisture, leading to dry scalp, dandruff, itchiness and brittle hair- and eventually hair breakage and thinning. 

Since chlorine and chloramine are oxidisers, people with colored hair may experience their hair color getting dull or fading fast. People with light, blonde hair might experience their hair turning green, even due to the same reason.

The good news is that hair loss or hair damage from chlorine is reversible. But more on that later in the article.

2. Skin Problems & Eye Irritation

Due to it's dehydrating nature-If you're already suffering from a skin disease, such as eczema or psoriasis, there's a high chance the effects of chlorine water on your skin could worsen your condition.

It also has the effect of making you look older- exposure to chlorine can make your skin age prematurely, look darker and more wrinkled than normal.

Also, depending on how sensitive your skin may be, many people also complain of acne breakouts and rashes due to chlorinated water

It can also cause eye irritation in people. Ever noticed how your eyes always seem red and itchy after a swim in the pool? That's the chlorine at work.

3. Respiratory Diseases

Chlorine may cause breathing issues

"This is how mom makes me shower"

Total Chlorine reacts with organic matter in water- causing the formation of Volatile Organic Compounds(VOC's).

These VOC's become airborne when we shower in chlorinated water, and are easily inhaled. This happens because chlorine vaporizes much faster than water.

This effect is exacerbated even further during winters, when we take hot baths. That steam you inhale while taking a warm shower?That's when the problem starts.

You see, VOC's are known to increase the risk of respiratory illnesses such as asthma and bronchitis. And if you already suffer from them, you probably will experience your condition getting worse.

By the way, the most common VOC is chloroform. A drug that was previously used as an anesthetic in hospitals and later banned for having cancer-causing properties.

According to multiple studies, such as this one conducted in Belgium, children are especially at risk for developing respiratory problems due to VOC's. 

Similarly, people with pre-existing illnesses or compromised immune systems should exercise caution as well.

4.  Linked With Cancer

Free chlorine/chloramine in water combines with the oil and sweat on our skin and forms compounds called Trihaloamines(THA's). It also combines with organic material in water to form Trihalomethanes(THM's).

How dangerous are they?

Quite. According to Water Research Centre, THM's are a Class B cancerous compound(shown to cause cancer in lab animals).

We are quite convinced, based on this study, that there is an association between cancer and chlorinated water… There is a clear pattern between consumption of chlorinated water and rectal and bladder cancer.”

Dr. Robert Morris

Medical College of Wisconsin research team

A recent study in USA found that women diagnosed with breast cancer had 50-60% more organochlorines present in breast tissue than normal.

However, it is important to note that there is no conclusive evidence linking chlorine to causing cancer yet.  What has been found through studies are links between chlorine byproducts in water(THA, THM) and cancer, specifically bladder and rectal cancer.

5. Destroys Healthy Gut Bacteria

Here's a fact:

Through inhaling VOC's and skin absorption, a person can absorb upto 60% more chlorine than if they drank 8 glasses of the same water.

Let that sink in for a minute. You'd be safer drinking that stuff than bathing or washing hands in it.

All that absorbed total chlorine goes directly to the bloodstream, bypassing the liver, which is supposed to filter out toxins from the body.

And although eventually the body rejects these small amounts of chlorine that make their way into our system, they are still believed to cause damage over time.

 According to The Candida Diet since chlorine is basically a disinfectant, it may destroy the healthy bacteria in your gut. This can cause digestive problems, weaken your immune system and can also lead to an overgrowth of Candida yeast.

How To Know If You Have Excess Chlorine/Chloramine In Your Water?

Take a look at the list below. You may have noticed these side effects from chlorine water before:

  • Does your skin feel drier 30 mins after taking a shower than before? 
  • Do you have redness and/or some irritation in your eyes after a shower?
  • Does your hair feel more brittle than normal?
  • Have you been experiencing any rashes, acne breakouts recently?
  • Does your shower water have a 'bleach' smell- like most swimming pools?

If you answer 'Yes' for any of these- there's a good chance it's due to excess chlorine. Also, if you live in a hard water area, you'll experience some of these effects because hard water minerals have a similar effect on our hair and skin. 

Another, more conclusive way is to get a chlorine test kit. Here's one I found on Amazon.

7 Proven Chloramine vs Chlorine Water Treatment Methods

  1. Buy a Shower & Tap Filter For Chlorine- Recommended
  2. Boiling Water
  3. Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
  4. Dechlorinator Ball
  5. Campden Tablets
  6. RO Water Purifier
  7. Whole house Filter

#1 Shower Filter- For Chlorine and Chloramine

 It's better to eradicate the cause rather than try and manage the effects. Buying shampoos and performing home remedies can help manage your hair- but the most effective way to protect yourself from chlorine is to get a shower filter. 

I personally use and recommend the CLEO  SFW 815 shower filter. I believe it's one of the best shower filters to remove chlorine- filters upto 95% of chlorine, and has the added benefits of removing effects of hard water salts, and trace amounts of heavy metals as well.

The only problem is that it doesn't tackle chloramines. If you're concerned about that, you can check out this shower filter on Amazon specifically for chlorine and chloramine.

Additionally I also recommend that you buy a tap filter, such as this one on Amazon because it just takes about 10 seconds for chlorine to be completely absorbed by your skin- roughly the time one takes to wash their hands!

#2 Boiling Water - For Chlorine 

If you leave a vessel full of chlorinated water without a lid on, in about 24 hours, all the chlorine gas will dissipate from it. 

Keep in mind though- chloramine is more stable than chlorine and takes longer to dissipate. If you're counting on leaving the vessel out, it'll take days for the chloramine to fully dissipate.

If you want to speed up this process, you can do so by boiling the water so that chlorine and chloramine are evaporated faster.

According to sfwater.org, it takes about 20 minutes on a gentle boil to remove both chlorine and chloramine from water. However, not a very convenient method for daily use.

Also, I couldn't find conclusive evidence that boiling does remove chloramines, as a lot of articles, such as this one on howtobrew.com say otherwise. 

I plan on testing this method out at home with a test kit to verify, soon.

#3 Ascorbic Acid(Vitamin C)- For Chlorine and Chloramine

Vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid removes chlorine and chloramines. According to Divine Health, all you need to do is add 4-5 teaspoons of ascorbic acid powder to your bath water and leave it for 3 minutes before bathing. 

This is the same principle utilised by Vitamin C shower filters. You can get ascorbic acid powder online on Amazon. 

#4 Dechlorinator Ball- For Chlorine 

I found this nice little product by Rainshowr on Amazon. It contains a crystal quartz filtration media, and all you have to do is, immerse it in a bucket of water or a tub for 5 minutes to remove all the chlorine. 

Whether it removes chloramine is unclear- this website says it removes about 30% while the Amazon product info says it removes 90%. Since product info on any e-commerce website can sometimes be wrong, I would only trust this product to remove chlorines.

#5 Campden Tablets- For Chlorine and Chloramine

Campden tablets are typically used by wine makers or home brewers to help remove bacteria, fungi from the water. However, it also has an additional benefit- it breaks down the 'total chlorine' in water into chloride, sulfates and ammonia.

This means that both chlorines and chloramines are rendered harmless. According to eckraus.com, all you need to do is add half a crushed campden tablet per every 70L or 6 Gallons of water to be purified. 

You can find campden tablets pretty easily on Amazon.

#6 RO Water Purifier- For Chlorine and Chloramine

RO purifiers are the most effective- they remove all viruses, bacteria , cysts, protozoa as well as dissolved chemicals such as chlorine, chloramines flouride, etc.

The only issue being- they waste a lot of water- about 60% of the input water gets wasted.

#7 Whole House Filter- For Chlorine and Chloramine

There are multiple options available online for buying a whole house filter according to the contaminants you have at home. You can easily check them out online, such as this one for removing chlorine and chloramines

Whole house filters are a big investment- anything between $1000-$5000, but you can rest easy after that.

Final Word

While chlorinated water is prevalent in most homes these days and it's health risks are also apparent- they are easy to counter. 

Keep in mind that while you may or may not have noticed the side effects of chlorine water, there is a very real chance that, over time, they will catch up with you.

Why take that chance? Especially when a simple investment, such as a shower filter  can save you from spending much, much more on doctors' bills later on. 

Until next time,

Stay healthy, stay good looking!